The widespread use of cellular concrete for enclosing structures forces researchers to develop ways to improve their performance and durability. Compositions of aerated and foam concrete with the use of waste heat power engineering have been developed. The optimal formulation ratios have been identified that contribute to the creation of a rigid interpore matrix and water-repellent pore protection. The regularities of the synthesis of aerated concrete and foam concrete were established, which consist in optimizing the processes of structure formation through the use of a polymineral cement-ash binder and a pore-forming agent. The mix composition intensifies the process of hydration of the system, which leads to the synthesis of a polymineral highly porous heterodispersed matrix. The increased activity and granulometry of aluminosilicates predetermine an increase in the number of contacts and mechanical adhesion between particles during compaction, strengthening the framework of the interpore partitions. The mechanism of the influence of the composition of the concrete mix on the microstructure of the composite is established. The calculated sound insulation of airborne noise shows sufficient characteristics for using aerated concrete blocks as enclosing structures. One of the main advantages of aerated concrete is its low thermal conductivity, which is especially important from the point of view of ensuring the energy efficiency of buildings and structures. Even in spite of the high values of open porosity of the developed aerated concrete, the rigid frame makes it possible to achieve almost 2 times higher frost resistance characteristics than that of the reference specimen.