Архив

Thermovision study of a residential building under climatic conditions of South Kazakhstan in a cold period

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-2-1
Аннотация
In this study, a nine-storey residential building was examined for thermal protection, located in Shymkent, Republic of Kazakhstan. Two two-room flats were considered with the possibility to inspect the exterior envelopes in four orientations. The examination was carried out at different times of the day according to three criteria: exterior envelope in the form of corner joints, translucent enve-lope in the form of window openings and the exterior façade of the building. The study found that the temperature at the surface of the room joints at lunchtime increased from 0.8% to 12% depending on the orientation of the exterior envelope. At the same time, it was found that in the morning and evening hours the temperature inside the living rooms is maintained at 25.8 - 26.5ºC due to excessive con-sumption of heat energy by increasing the heating power up to 15.6% relative to lunchtime, which leads to an excessive increase in air temperature by 7 - 18%. The value of humidity of living rooms also showed non-compliance with the optimal value by 3 - 15% relative to the current norms. As a result of the analysis of thermograms of translucent openings it was found that the surface temperature of the envelope at lunchtime increased by 9.9 - 23.2% in all cases of orientations, and the surface tem-perature of translucent openings of southern orientation is on average 18.2% higher relative to other orientations, which also indicates the influence of solar radiation on the thermal values of translucent openings. The analysis of thermograms and temperature of characteristic points of the external façade with regard to orientations showed a temperature difference from 7.5ºC to 21ºC depending on the ori-entation of the building, where the most exposed to solar radiation façade of southern orientation, which showed an increase in surface temperature by 3 times. Thus, the obtained results of the study will further contribute to the development of energy-efficient designs of external enclosures, consider-ing the influence of all factors on the process of heat exchange, which is the main objective of the au-thors’ comprehensive study.
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Artificial intelligence model for predicting the load-bearing capacity of eccentrically compressed short concrete filled steel tubular columns

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-2-2
Аннотация
The purpose of this work is to develop the artificial neural network (ANN) model to determine the load-bearing capacity of concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) columns of circular cross-section in a wide range of input parameters. Short columns are considered for which deflections do not lead to a significant increase in the eccentricity of the axial force. The input parameters of the artificial neural network are the outer diameter of the pipe, the wall thickness, the yield strength of steel, the compressive strength of concrete, and the relative eccentricity of the axial force. The artificial neural network is trained on the synthetic data. For training, the dataset of 179,025 numerical experiments with different values of input parameters was generated. Numerical experiments were carried out using the finite element method in a simplified formulation, which makes it possible to reduce the three-dimensional problem of determining the stress-strain state of a CFST column to a two-dimensional problem. The results of testing the developed model on the data from full-scale experiments are pre-sented.
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Structure and Properties of Variatropic Concrete Combined Modified with Nano- and Micro-silica

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-2-3
Аннотация
The lack of systematic information on the influence of the combined modification of variatropic concrete on their characteristics was revealed. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of the type of modifying additive, namely micro-silica, nano silica and their combination on the properties of concrete made using three different technologies - vibration (VC), centrifugation (CC) and vibration centrifugation (VCC). Concrete elements made using centrifugal compaction technology were subjected to additional sawing. Three types of modifiers were studied: micro-silica (MS), nano silica (NS) and their combinations. To determine the degree of effectiveness of each recipe solution, the following main characteristics were monitored: workability of concrete mixtures; density of hardened composites; compressive strength (CS) and water absorption (WA). When modifying MS, the greatest effect for VC, CC and VCC was observed with its amount of 8% instead of part of the cement. CS gains were up to 17% for VCC, and WA decreased to 25% for VCC. The NS modification showed the greatest effectiveness at a dosage of 4%. CS gains were up to 19% and WA decreased to 28% for VCC. A combined modifier of 75% MS and 25% NS showed the greatest effectiveness. CS increased up to 17% compared to effective dosages of single-component modifiers. The effectiveness of VCC, characterized by the percentage increase in CS, was up to 55% higher in comparison with VC and up to 25% higher in comparison with CC. WA of concrete decreased to 14% in comparison with effective dosages of one-component modifiers. The effectiveness of VCC, characterized by the percentage reduction in WA, was up to 30% higher compared to VC and up to 12% higher compared to CC. The greatest efficiency of all types of modifiers was observed in combination with the synthesized vibration centrifugation technology.
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Evaluation of the influence of an aggressive environment on the durability of the cement stone

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-2-4
Аннотация
The paper proposes methods for assessing the durability of building materials and structures based on Portland cement when exposed to aggressive environments that mimic the products of the vital activity of bacteria on building materials.
To determine the main parameters of the model of degradation of building materials under the action of aggressive environments, a mathematical model has been developed in the form of integral and differential relations connecting these parameters. A technique for identifying the mechanical characteristics included in these models based on the solution of inverse biodegradation problems has been developed. The analysis of changes in the structure of the cement stone was carried out using the results of computed tomography, and the regularities of the distribution of pores in the cement stone from the time of exposure were obtained.
Based on experimental and numerical studies, it has been established that the mechanism of destruction of cement stone obtained by the traditional method and activation in the vortex layer apparatus is different. The difference lies in the greater accumulation of cement stone interaction products in the activated sample, which is confirmed by a shift in porosity to less than 0.5 mm and a lower solubility value compared to the control composition. The compressive strength of the samples as a result of exposure for 28 days decreased by 37% and 20% for the control and activated compositions. The mass of the studied samples as a result of exposure decreased by 49% and 21%, respectively.
On the basis of this mechanism, a mathematical model of the process of material degradation in an aggressive one is developed, taking into account changes in porosity and acidity concentration, and dependence of material strength reduction are obtained.
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Dry masonry mixtures based on siliceous opal-cristobalite rocks for clinker bricks

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-2-5
Аннотация
Clinker bricks have always attracted consumers with their high physical and mechanical characteristics: strength, dense structure, frost resistance, low water absorption values. In recent years, enterprises producing ceramic materials have begun to look for the opportunity to produce these products in Russia. With increased demand for clinker bricks, a technology has emerged for creating large-sized clinker stones which feature increased voids – 60-80%, an average density of 450-700 kg/m3 and thermal conductivity of 0.8-0.11 W/(m•°C), and a compressive strength of 10-30 MPa. The use of such wall products in construction projects predetermines specific building mixtures for masonry work that would meet the required values for strength, water absorption, vapor permeability and, at the same time, would have reduced thermal conductivity characteristics. To develop such masonry mortars, it is necessary to select the grain composition of quartz sand for building mixtures to ensure structural strength indicators. Thus, the research aims at finding lightweight aggregate and increasing porosity in order to improve the heat-shielding properties of clinker brick masonry and clinker high-hollow large-sized blocks.
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Classification and architectural planning components of riverine areas in the city structure

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-2-6
Аннотация
The study is devoted to the interaction of riverine areas with the urban structure. The purpose of the study is to provide substantiation for the classification of riverine territories in the city structure and to establish the architectural and planning components of riverine areas.
The authors analyze global experience in the organization of riverine territories as part of urban development in the context of modern sustainable development programs. The results suggest that amid the increasing density of cities, changes in production interests, and climate change, there are trends in the regeneration of riverine areas. The study highlights the following trends in urban development: the creation of a system of recreational zones along the banks; creation of a network of city parks with different themes; incorporation of a spatial carcass into the structure; creation of public recreation centers, leisure complexes, and parking ensembles at the intersection of the urban and natural frames; rehabilitation and improvement of industrial areas; relocation of industrial plants situated among residential buildings to industrial areas; optimization of traffic and rational positioning of storage and maintenance facilities; development and organization of water protection zones and coastal protection strips. The conducted analysis of world experience confirms the need to find techniques to rehabilitate territories that are no longer effective while prioritizing the formation of a comfortable urban environment as a factor in raising their environmental and social efficiency.
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Field thermovision study of externsl enclosure for multi-storey residential building under climatic conditions of Northern Kazakhstan

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-1-1
Аннотация
An in-place thermovision study was carried out in a multi-apartment apartment building of high comfort in a cold period of the year, located in the Northern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the work. The study result showed the presence of significant problems on thermal protection at the edge and inner corner fences where the temperature difference between the inner surface of an enclosure and the internal temperature was 6.4 - 19.4ºC. An analysis of thermograms of window joints in living rooms also showed a significant temperature drop from -9.3ºC to 18ºC, where total vulnerable area was up to 10%. Thermograms of window-sill joints of living rooms also showed a temperature drop to -21.1 ºC with an area of 15.7 %. The temperature on a reinforced concrete column’s inner surface showed a value of 6.5 ºC, which is typical for an area of 34.8 %. An analysis of outside and inside temperatures showed that as the temperature drops from -7 ºC to -23 ºC during the day, the inside temperature of the room remains relatively stable at 25.3 - 26.1 ºC, although there are problems with the thermal protection of the enclosures, which indicates overconsumption of heat energy. Moreover, the internal air temperature exceeds the permissible temperature for living rooms by 1.3 - 2.6 ºС. An analysis of air humidity also showed unsatisfactory values, which during the day varied from 17.4% to 21.2%. The deviations identified during the survey indicate the presence of problems on thermal pro-tection of external enclosures, which require additional surveys aimed at further development and op-timization of external enclosure designs to obtain optimal values in the issue of energy saving, consid-ering the climatic characteristics of the Kazakhstan regions.
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Processing of nonlinear concrete creep curves using nonlinear optimization methods

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-1-2
Аннотация
The article proposes a method for determining the rheological parameters of concrete based on creep curves at various stress levels using the theory of V.M. Bondarenko. Using the proposed methodology, the experimental data presented in the work of A.V. Yashin is processed. The problem of searching for rheological parameters is posed as a nonlinear optimization problem. The sum of squared deviations of the experimental values of creep strains from the theoretical ones is minimized. The interior point method is used as a nonlinear optimization method. Four different expressions for the creep measure are considered, including the creep measure by N.Kh. Harutyunyan, creep measure by A.G. Tamrazyan, a creep measure in the form of a sum of two exponentials, and McHenry’s creep measure. It has been shown that the best agreement with experimental data is provided by the McHenry’s creep measure. An expression has been selected for the nonlinearity function, which describes the nonlinear relationship between stresses and creep strains. It is shown that the instantaneous nonlinearity of deformation and the nonlinearity that manifests itself over time cannot be described by a single function.
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Stress-strain state during the formation of normal cracks in three-layer bendable reinforced concrete elements under the action of longitudinal and transverse forces

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-1-3
Аннотация
Most wall panels in operating multi-storey residential buildings are in a complex stress-strain state under the influence of vertical and horizontal loads, such as their own weight, wind, etc. These features must be taken into account in the calculation in order to ensure operational safety. The combination of vertical and horizontal forces acting simultaneously for three-layer bending elements leads to the fact that the boundary between the compressed and tensile zones not only moves from one layer to another, but also has a different geometric shape depending on the ratio between the vertical and horizontal load. The stress-strain state during the formation of normal cracks in three-layer bendable reinforced concrete elements is caused by the impact on layers of different concretes. The formation of normal cracks occurs due to the achievement of ultimate tensile strength by the most stretched concrete under the influence of external loads. Since three-layer reinforced concrete elements consist of two outer layers (reinforced concrete) and a middle layer (lightweight concrete), when such an element bends, the outer layers are subject to compression, and the middle layer is subject to tension. The boundary of the compressed zone can be located either in one of the outer layers or intersect the middle layer, which falls into both the compressed and stretched zones. To analyze the stress-strain state during the formation of normal cracks, it is necessary to take into account the fol-lowing parameters: geometric characteristics of the element (dimensions and shape of the section, layer thickness, etc.), physical and mechanical properties of concrete (compressive and tensile strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, crack resistance coefficient, etc.), characteristics of reinforcement (class, diameter, pitch of bars, etc.) and its location in the section.
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Calculation of monolithic buildings structures taking into account the nonlinear operation of reinforced concrete

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2024-7-1-4
Аннотация
Buildings and structures made of reinforced concrete are currently designed, as a rule, under the assumption of linear work of the material. However, in accordance with the requirements of modern standards, it is necessary to take into account the nonlinear operation of concrete and reinforcement in calculations. In the research presented in the article, using the example of a building with a wall structural system, the influence of taking into account the physical nonlinearity of reinforced concrete on the operation of its structures was considered. It was received that due to the nonlinear operation, there is a prospect of a possible reduction in the calculated forces affecting the strength and width of crack opening, and, consequently, the reinforcement consumption. In addition, when taking into account the work of reinforcement in the zone of yield stresses in ceilings and walls, local plastic areas may form that require reinforcement, which are not fixed in linear calculations.
The calculations were performed in the LIRA-CAD 2021 software package. The results of the calculations showed that taking into account the nonlinear operation of reinforced concrete when considering the floors of a building allows reducing the design efforts compared to calculations performed in a linear formulation by about (3 - 30)%, and when calculating walls, on the contrary, taking into account the physical nonlinearity of reinforced concrete, internal forces increase in some cases more more than twice. Taking into account the physical nonlinearity of reinforced concrete work also leads to a more correct assessment of floor deflections.
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