Archives

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS ENSURING RELIABLE OPERATION OF STEEL VERTICAL RESERVOIRS IN SEISMIC AREAS

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-5-16
Abstract
The article discusses the relevance of reliable operation of vertical steel reservoirs (RVS) in earthquake-prone areas. Based on the analysis of a number of scientific publications, it has been estab-lished that for the safe functioning of large–sized RVS, it is necessary to install anchor devices, the main purpose of which is the transmission of vertical forces arising from an earthquake in the wall to the base. To do this, they must be securely fixed to the wall and the base in order to evenly distribute efforts across the office of the RVS. In some cases, poor-quality connection of the anchor with the RVS leads to significant stresses in the anchors and there is a possibility of both rupture of the housing itself and rupture of the connection of the housing with the bottom of the tank. It is known that large-sized tanks require a massive base and the installation of anchors with a large number of bolts is a very expensive undertaking.
The article discusses the most common variants of anchors that are used in practice, lists some of their disadvantages and suggests an improved version based on the analysis of scientific publications. The authors present their own development – a modified version of the anchor device, the corresponding design solutions are given and the technology of the device is described. In addition, it was noted the need to increase the bearing capacity of the soils of the RVS foundation, constructed in earthquake-prone areas using geocomposite materials. It is emphasized that the required number and length of an-chor devices, as well as the choice of geocomposite material for soil hardening should be justified by appropriate calculations. It is concluded that in order to ensure reliable operational characteristics of RVS located in seismically hazardous areas, the installation of anchors, despite attracting additional financial resources, is a prerequisite, since in the event of a spill of petroleum products, the restoration of biogeocenosis requires more than one decade and involves enormous material costs.
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MODERN TRENDS IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF RAILWAY STATIONS AND TRANSPORT HUBS

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-17-28
Abstract
The article discusses current trends in the construction of railway stations and transport hubs. The problems of large-span public buildings, as well as railway stations, were studied and their shortcomings in terms of technical equipment, architectural solutions and passenger comfort were studied. In the course of the research, various methods were used to study and analyze the problems of interest: photo-video fixation, comprehensive analysis of project materials and publications in profes-sional literature and project practice, discussion of problems at professional conferences and round tables together with representatives of Russian Railways. It is determined that at present there is a need to replace traditional railway stations and station complexes with transport interchange hubs (TIHs). Modern TIH will allow you to organize a comfortable distribution of traffic flow and at the same time meet the needs of passengers to use different modes of transport at the same time. This is determined by the greater mobility of the population on the one hand, and the requirements for the conditions of movement on the other. It has been established that thanks to new design solutions, elements and materials, the cost of structures can be reduced and large unsupported spaces inside the building can be provided, which will allow the software to freely accommodate any premises and implement various planning solutions.
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UNIVERSAL LAWS OF COMPOSITION (ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FORM) ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE V.G. SHUKHOV TOWER

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-29-41
Abstract
The authors of the article broadcast information about the study of the compositional activity of engineers in Soviet Russia in the 20s of the XX century. in line with the architectural trend "con-structivism". The study, analysis and fixation in graphic images of masterpieces of volume-spatial composition in the history of engineering, scientific thought is considered by the authors as an isola-tion from an artificially created object – an organism of universal laws and means. The authors believe that the study, analysis and fixation in a schematic graphic material of high-class samples of science, technology, engineering allows you to develop compositional thinking, taste and teaches you to under-stand the course and origins of compositional thought in design. The study of the formal (composi-tional) sphere of the Legacy of the classics of modern and past eras allows you to build the path of the author's work on the project, avoiding mistakes and disappointments.
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FLAT BENDING SHAPE STABILITY OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION WOODEN BEAMS WHEN FASTENING THE EDGE STRETCHED FROM THE BENDING MOMENT

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-4-5-18
Abstract
The article presents the solution to the problem of calculating the lateral buckling of wooden beams with a narrow rectangular section, taking into account intermediate point fixing in the edge stretched from the bending moment. The structure is considered as an orthotropic plate, the calculation is performed by the finite element method (FEM). To obtain a result that is valid for any beam geometry, the system of FEM equations is reduced to a dimensionless form. The dimensionless parameter that determines the value of the critical load is calculated based on the solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem. The numerical calculation algorithm is implemented in the MATLAB environment. The developed technique is verified by comparison with calculations in the LIRA and ANSYS software systems using flat and volumetric finite elements. A comparison is also made with the calculation formula presented in the Russian design standards for wooden structures SP 64.13330.2017 for the coefficient, taking into account intermediate fixing, with pure bending. It has been established that this dependence rather roughly takes into account the fastening from the bending plane of the edge stretched from the bending moment. Using the package Curve Fitting Toolbox of the MATLAB environment, we have selected refined formula for the coefficient, which can be used in engineering calculations.
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INVESTIGATION OF THE PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE ON MODIFIED BITUMEN POLYMERS

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-4-19-29
Abstract
The paper considers the method of obtaining bitumen modified with a Honeywell TitanTM7686 polymer additive and the preparation of asphalt concrete mixtures based on it. The aim of the work is to study the properties of the obtained bitumen and the possibility of its use in road organizations of the Vladimir region for the manufacture of asphalt concrete with improved deformative indicators. The study was carried out on bitumen BND 70/100 LLC LUKOIL – Nizhegorodnefteorgsintez, determined not only the main indicators of bitumen, but also some additional ones necessary to determine the intervals of mixing and compaction. A step-by-step algorithm for introducing an additive into bitumen is described, the optimal amount of the introduced modifier, temperature and mixing time are determined. The obtained test results of the modified bitumen were compared with the data of the initial samples. Next, the selection of the composition of the asphalt concrete mix was carried out and samples were made on modified bitumen and bitumen without a modifier. From the prepared asphalt concrete mixture A16Vn on bitumen modified by Honeywell Titan 7686, the top layer of the coating with a thickness of 4 cm was laid on the pilot site. After the installation of the asphalt concrete layer, cuttings were selected and studies of the selected samples from the coating were carried out. The test results showed a significant improvement in the main indicators of asphalt concrete mixtures and asphalt concrete, as well as resistance to rutting, which could not be achieved without the use of a modified binder.
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BINDER COMPOSITIONS BASED ON PORTLAND CEMENT AND VOLCANIC ASH

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-4-30-38
Abstract
Today, preference is given to composite binders. The use of dispersed mineral fillers makes it possible to realize the potential of binders to a large extent, which leads to an increase in the physico-mechanical, operational and technical properties of composite binders, as well as building materials based on them, and reduces the consumption of expensive binders. The creation of highly effective composite binders is based on the management of their production technology at all stages: the selection of raw materials, the development of optimal compositions, the use of mechanical activation of raw materials, the modification of composite binders with functional chemical additives, and some other methods. The use of volcanic ash in the world is quite diverse, it is used not only as additives for building materials, but also it has found its application in medicine. Many countries are beginning to use volcanic ash as a building material. The article presents the results of obtaining binder compositions of optimal composition based on Portland cement and volcanic ash. Experimental studies of the granulometric composition have been carried out, the results of tests of binder compositions of the compositions: cement – volcanic ash, prepared in a vibratory mill, have been presented. The results of physical and mechanical tests of binder compositions with different content of volcanic ash, activated for 10 and 20 minutes in a vibratory mill, have been obtained. Research work has been carried out to study the microstructure of volcanic ash.
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RESULTS OF ENDURANCE TESTING OF PREFABRICATED CRANE STRUCTURES

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-4-39-49
Abstract
The purpose of the work is to analyze the results of tests of prefabricated crane beams for endurance during cyclic tests on a specially designed stand. The method of carrying out such tests is given. It indicates the inadmissibility of the operation of steel crane structures with cracks and the importance of research aimed at increasing the endurance and durability of crane beams. It proves the need to develop new crane beams (various profiles) to increase the period of accident-free operation of industrial buildings (using bridge lifting mechanisms with heavy duty) up to 25 years. It is proved that the developed prefabricated crane beam has improved (in comparison with the standard) characteristics.
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POST-PANDEMIC URBANISM IS THE CURRENT REALITY

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-4-50-60
Abstract
The article discusses current problems and trends in the development of post-pandemic living spaces of the future. Growth of population affects the increase in demand for development of new areas. The 21st century is a period of innovative ideas, whereby society will rethink, improve and transform the environment to ensure high-quality living standards for the population. Architecture is characterized by continuity from the surrounding world. The main goal of the project is to reveal criteria of architectural space, which will allow mankind to live in a comfortable environment, even in a period of forced critical conditions. After studying the theoretical basis, there was a need for a comparative analysis of modern residential facilities and in determining general trends in construction. Analysis of volume-planning structure and architectural project of living spaces in recent years helped to formulate directions in the development of the post-pandemic city. The hypothesis was formed during the research, which suggests that the increase in the number of ideas about cities of the future contribute to safety and adaptability, harmonious visual appearance, the development of modern technologies. The thought movement is expanding, which is helping to build cities over the next 20 to 30 years. This work can become the basis for conceptualizing and systematizing the vision of post-pandemic urbanism.
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TYPOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHODOX CHURCHES OF KAZAN BY PLANNING STRUCTURE

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-4-61-70
Abstract
The article is devoted to the compilation of a typology of a religious objects located on the territory of Kazan, built in the period from the XVI to the beginning of the XXI century. In order to identify development trends and determine the prevailing planning structures. Analysis of religious objects of Kazan allowed to trace a number of distinctive features of temples and calatog them according to functional typology. Classify all the objects according to their planning structure, the type of its development and the architectural planning solution. Ultimately, this article can become the basis for creating the aforementioned methodicak base for creating new model projects of religious architecture, based on the canon of the Orthododx church building, developed from the XVI to the XIX centuries.
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DESIGNING THE COMPOSITION OF ASPHALT CONCRETE BY THE CALCULATION METHOD

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-3-5-16
Abstract
The article proposes a promising technology for designing asphalt mixes based on the method of "irregular packing" of figures of different sizes and shapes. The calculation has been improved and adapted to deter-mine the bulk density of asphalt concrete depending on the content of bituminous binder. A detailed algorithm for designing asphalt mixes based on the "irregular packing" method is described. MS Excel spreadsheets have been created with calculation formulas for converting the grain composition of the mineral part of the asphalt concrete mixture, the content of bituminous binder by volume and recalculating the bulk density of asphalt concrete, the content of air voids, voids in the mineral aggregate and voids filled with bituminous binder. In order to justify the application of the "irregular packing" method of figures of different sizes and shapes in determining the bulk density of asphalt concrete, the results of the calculated data were compared with laboratory tests of control samples during the preparation of ShMA-16 and A 16Vn asphalt concrete mixes at the plant, as well as cores taken from the coating on highway. As a result of the comparison, it was found that the discrepancy between the obtained experimental and calculated values in terms of bulk density does not exceed 0.02 g/cm3, and in terms of the content of bituminous binder, less than 0.2%.
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