Vol. 1 Issue 1

Archives Journal Construction Materials and Products Vol. 1 Issue 1


Adsorption is a widespread and effective way of treating sewage containing petroleum products. To implement this method, one of the best sorbents is activated carbon. However, sorbents based on activated coals are of high cost and require further regeneration, which significantly increases the cost of water treatment. In addition, during the regeneration of such sorption materials secondary toxic waste is formed, which also create environmental problems. Therefore, the development of new efficient and inexpensive sorption materials, especially on the base of a variety of wastes, is an urgent task.
For research, we used tree waste of the genus of horse chestnut (Latin Aésculus hippocastanum L.). Horse chestnut is widespread in the midland of the Russian Federation, CIS countries, Southern Europe. According to municipal services about 5.000 chestnut trees grow on the territory of a city with a population of about 400.000 people and tree waste of the trees covering streets and square every year. Tree waste is nowhere used and removed to landfills.
Extraction of I-20A spindle oil from model emulsions by native and thermal modified chestnut tree waste as a sorption material in industry was carried out because this oil is a widely used petroleum product. The physicochemical properties of tree waste, such as bulk density, humidity, ash content, pH of aqueous extract, specific surface area are studied.
Before extraction, the chestnut tree waste was ground to a size of 3-5 mm. Thermal treatment was carried out in a drying cabinet of the type SNOL and muffle furnace in the temperature range 100-500 C. It is established that during the thermal treatment the specific surface area of the sorption material increases from 2.6 to 27.9 m2/ g. The surface of micro relief structure changes in the direction of increasing roughness and defectiveness; sorption material acquires hydrophobic properties. The recommended thermal treatment temperature is 200 C. The efficiency of cleaning model emulsions is 91%.


Technological processes of processing of metal products and galvanic production are characterized by large volumes of wastewater containing ions of heavy metals, in particular as a result of Nickel plating products in wastewater in the predominant amount fall ions Ni2+. To assess the possibility of removing pollution from this type of wastewater, the process of adsorption purification of model Nickel-containing wastewater was investigated. As adsorbents modified nitrogen-containing polyvinyl alcohol, polycaproamide, hydrocellulose fiber were used. Modification of this type of fibers allows fixing functionally active groups on the surface of adsorbent. It is established that the fibrous adsorbents have a high adsorption capacity towards Nickel ion(II), the magnitude of adsorption is in the range of 80-100 mg/g. The predominant mechanism is monomolecular chemisorption. Adsorption proceeds at high speeds, the balance is achieved in the first 20 minutes of the process. The effect of pH on complex formation in the phase of adsorbents is revealed. It is shown that in a strongly acidic medium the purification efficiency is small, the increase in pH leads to increased adsorption properties of fibers. The optimal value of the acidity of the solution are pH values above 5. A decrease in the amount of coordinated nitrogen with an increase in pH was determined. In assessing the selectivity of fibers with respect to Ni2+ in the presence of Zn2+ and Cu2+, the influence of matrix polymer effect was revealed. Adsorption on polyvinyl alcohol and polycaproamide fibers showed that the influence of zinc ions(II) on the adsorption of Nickel (II) increases with its concentration in the solution, and hydrate cellulose fiber has a higher selectivity with respect to Zn2+ion. The presence of Cu2+ leads to a significant decrease in the efficiency of model wastewater treatment from Nickel ions (II) on all types of adsorbents studied.


In Russia, every year 360 kg of waste per person is formed, which can be eliminated either by recycling or by burying them. Unfortunately, 90% of waste in our country is buried in landfills, while in developed countries, for example France, Australia, Belgium, this figure fluctuates between 40-70%.
In the production of sugar from sugar beet both liquid and solid waste are formed. The total amount of waste in the processing of sugar beet reaches 22 million tons per year, and part of the waste is due to production technology, and other waste may increase, in connection with which programs are being de-veloped to regulate the amount of waste, as well as their disposal. In Belgorod region there are 7 sugar factories, large-capacity waste - defecate is well studied and introduced in various branches of the industry. As a result of their work at the stage of washing of the beets about 170 000 tons conveyor-washing of sediment (CWS) are formed, which have not found practical applications.
Currently, only a small part of the CWS is used for soil fertilization, which has a number of negative effects, since the substances included in the CWS contain the residual amount of pesticides and fertilizers, which will adversely affect the cultivation of crops. Most of this material is taken out together with defects into dumps, where fertile soils are clogged, rot, pollute the air, get into groundwater and cause irreparable damage to the environment.
Analyzing the composition and properties of the conveyor-washing of sludge and in connection with the rapid development of construction, especially housing, there is a need to use it as a pigment filler in silicate paint to make the architectural expression, decorative effectiveness of the conservation and durability of the cladding and painting of external facade of buildings.
All this is closely interconnected and largely depends on the quality of finishing works. Unfortunately, in construction practice there are cases when untimely painting of walls and application of poor-quality materials lead to premature repair of the building, i.e. to unjustified expenses. It is known that the annual cost of the current repair of facades is more than 3% of the total cost of major repairs of houses. Recently ceramic facing of buildings finds wide application, however, it raises very much the price of housing construction and already in 5-6 years on finishing materials there are stains and drips.


Сonstruction, repair and reconstruction of roads require high costs of mineral raw materials in the form of sand, gravel, mineral powder. However, its reserves on the territory of our country are distributed unevenly, which causes significant transportation costs for the delivery of mineral resources to construction sites. In addition, mineral resources are inevitably reduced over time, which requires extensive involvement in the construction of roads of non-traditional types of raw materials, as well as industrial waste.
The paper presents the results of studies of the properties of electric steel slag, the current output and stored in the dumps for several years. The main component of electric steel-smelting slags, both fresh and dumped, lying in dumps for about 20 years, is shannonite or γ-modification of calcium orthosilicate C2S. It has been established that the mineralogical composition of the Oskol Electrometallurgical Combine's slag is represented by hematite, wuistite, calcite, periclase, and also portlandite, formed during quenching of lime. Analysis of diffractograms of slags of different shelf life shows that in the initial periods of slag storage in the dumps there is a final quenching of lime and its carbonization with the formation of calcite. The results of the determination of the granulometric composition of the slag of different storage periods showed a decrease with time of the number of fine fractions and an increase in large fractions. It is established that when using electric steel-smelting slags in the construction and repair of highways, it is necessary to take into account changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials. The processes that take place during the maintenance of slags in dumps determine the suitability of the use of slag mineral materials in road con-struction.


Today energy saving and energy efficiency improvement in Russia are priority directions of the country’s energy policy. First of all, when creating an energy-efficient house, it is necessary to think about preventing heat losses through enclosing structures, and only then about reducing lighting costs, optimizing the work of building engineering systems, and the introduction of alternative energy sources. Materials for thermal insulation, the most important characteristic of which is the thermal conductivity, do the main role in the provision of optimal conditions of indoor air. The creation of thermal insulation solutions with improved thermal protection properties is a very acute problem at the moment. In this connection, the purpose of this work was to create effective compositional binders that contribute to the reduction of the density of thermal insulation materials.
Within the framework of the energy-saving program and the development of housing construction of the Russian Federation and the implementation of the Federal Law №185-FZ “On assistance to the reform of housing and communal services”, the creation of new effective building materials with high performance and thermal protection characteristics that can compete with foreign analogues is of great importance.
This article presents new approaches to improve the efficiency of dry heat-insulating mixtures, taking into account the law of affinity structures, which provides for the design of composites using fillers and composite binders of reduced density. Thermal insulation solutions on the basis of dry construction mixtures have superior technology, physical and mechanical and operational performance.


The production of concrete works in the construction of monolithic frames of buildings and structures is associated with a large number of technological operations and the corresponding dependence of the quality of the products obtained from the culture of construction production and the level of its control. In many cases, concreting is carried out with some deviations from the technical regulations governing the preparation and laying of the concrete mix, which has a negative impact on the consumer characteristics of the structure, first of all, on strength. It is known that the most common methods of industrial control of the quality of concrete work are destructive tests of concrete samples laid in control cubes together with the constructed structure and non-destructive testing of concrete of the strength that has gained strength. However, even qualitatively and timely carried out control measures do not guarantee the achievement of design-controlled design strength throughout the volume, since control cubes are prepared for testing under ideal conditions of laying and concrete set of strength not observed in the design, and non-destructive methods determine the strength of near-surface layers of concrete, which allows judging reliably the strength of the material throughout the volume of the structure. Especially these circumstances relate to the most massive and, at the same time, the most important for the structural safety of the whole building frame structures – monolithic foundation slabs. The difference between the actual strength of the slabs extracted from the slab during the production of the construction and technical expertise of concrete cores depends significantly on the depth of core extraction, while the design of the slab is always carried out on the as-sumption of an equal strength of the concrete along the depth of the structure, which is obviously the source of the potential limited availability of foundation plates and the cause of the appearance of numerous defects in the construction and operation of structures of the above-foundation part of the frame. The paper presents experimental studies of the authors to determine the actual difference in concrete strength from the depth of foundation slabs and quantifies it.


Non-autoclaved aerated concrete is the only real alternative to gas silicate in the organization of its release on the basis of regional production of small and medium capacity. This will help improve the competitive environment in the building materials market and optimize the cost of construction. Of particular interest is the possibility of expanding the field of application of this material due to a significant increase in strength characteristics, while maintaining its average density in acceptable, in terms of thermal insulation properties, limits - not more than 1000 ... 1100 kg/m3. At a strength level of 10 MPa and above, in combination with dispersed reinforcement or the use of traditional non-metallic reinforcing elements, such aerated concrete can be used as a lightweight structural material for creating power elements of low-rise buildings, including in promising construction printing technologies; devices distributing the load belts; non-removable formwork; porous, stiffening, filling thin-walled tubular structures. The paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of traditional ways to increase the strength of non-autoclaved aerated concrete. New solutions for the purposeful formation of the pore space structure are proposed and tested due to the creation and use of a gas generator with normalized gas evolution, which allows the creation of pores of a given volume. The key to the economic effectiveness of the proposed solutions is the transition from traditional portland cement to composite binders based on it. The substantiated choice of the amount and composition of the mineral additive makes it possible to optimize the properties of the binder under the particularity of the problem being solved, and to minimize the consumption of cement and chemical modifiers, increase the speed of durability and the final indices of non-autoclaved aerated concrete.


In order to form strong soil-concrete structures in parallel with the introduction of binder, an additive with a multicomponent composition that is activating the structure-forming process should be applied. Such addi-tive is usually called stabilizer of soil, its introduction allows achieving a positive effect for soils with a high proportion of finely dispersed fraction in its composition.
The article considers the main aspects of use in road construction of complex soil reinforcement by introducing a stabilizer and binding component. This technology will solve the problems of deficiency of high-quality traditional raw materials, lead to better physical and mechanical properties, increase labor productivity and reduce production costs.
As a result of the carried out studies, principles for improving the quality characteristics of reinforced soil were developed, taking into account the mineral composition of clay raw materials. As the main hypothesis of the study an increase in the hydrophobicity of stabilized soil by blocking the hydrophilic centers of clay rocks should be marked. This circumstance helps to reduce the consumption of cement in the reinforced soil without reducing the operational and physical-mechanical characteristics.
The dependence of the degree of effectiveness of the introduced stabilizing additive on the structural and chemical characteristics of clay rocks has been established, which decreases from montmorillonite and X-ray amorphous phases to kaolinite. Mixed layered formations, illite and chlorite act as intermediate minerals. Aluminosilicates act as the filler in this system that do not come into contact with the molecules of the stabilizer. To assess the degree of efficiency of interaction of the components of a soil-concrete mixture as an integral indicator it is necessary to use the cationic capacity of the soil.