Vol. 5 Issue 5

Archives Journal Construction Materials and Products 2022

Technological Solutions Ensuring Reliable Operation of Steel Vertical Reservoirs in Seismic Areas

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-5-16
Abstract
The article discusses the relevance of reliable operation of vertical steel reservoirs (RVS) in earthquake-prone areas. Based on the analysis of a number of scientific publications, it has been estab-lished that for the safe functioning of large–sized RVS, it is necessary to install anchor devices, the main purpose of which is the transmission of vertical forces arising from an earthquake in the wall to the base. To do this, they must be securely fixed to the wall and the base in order to evenly distribute efforts across the office of the RVS. In some cases, poor-quality connection of the anchor with the RVS leads to significant stresses in the anchors and there is a possibility of both rupture of the housing itself and rupture of the connection of the housing with the bottom of the tank. It is known that large-sized tanks require a massive base and the installation of anchors with a large number of bolts is a very expensive undertaking.
The article discusses the most common variants of anchors that are used in practice, lists some of their disadvantages and suggests an improved version based on the analysis of scientific publications. The authors present their own development – a modified version of the anchor device, the corresponding design solutions are given and the technology of the device is described. In addition, it was noted the need to increase the bearing capacity of the soils of the RVS foundation, constructed in earthquake-prone areas using geocomposite materials. It is emphasized that the required number and length of an-chor devices, as well as the choice of geocomposite material for soil hardening should be justified by appropriate calculations. It is concluded that in order to ensure reliable operational characteristics of RVS located in seismically hazardous areas, the installation of anchors, despite attracting additional financial resources, is a prerequisite, since in the event of a spill of petroleum products, the restoration of biogeocenosis requires more than one decade and involves enormous material costs.
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Modern Trends in the Architecture of Railway Stations and Transport Hubs

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-17-28
Abstract
The article discusses current trends in the construction of railway stations and transport hubs. The problems of large-span public buildings, as well as railway stations, were studied and their shortcomings in terms of technical equipment, architectural solutions and passenger comfort were studied. In the course of the research, various methods were used to study and analyze the problems of interest: photo-video fixation, comprehensive analysis of project materials and publications in profes-sional literature and project practice, discussion of problems at professional conferences and round tables together with representatives of Russian Railways. It is determined that at present there is a need to replace traditional railway stations and station complexes with transport interchange hubs (TIHs). Modern TIH will allow you to organize a comfortable distribution of traffic flow and at the same time meet the needs of passengers to use different modes of transport at the same time. This is determined by the greater mobility of the population on the one hand, and the requirements for the conditions of movement on the other. It has been established that thanks to new design solutions, elements and materials, the cost of structures can be reduced and large unsupported spaces inside the building can be provided, which will allow the software to freely accommodate any premises and implement various planning solutions.
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Universal Laws of Composition (Artificial and Natural Form) on the Example of the V.G. Shukhov Tower

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-29-41
Abstract
The authors of the article broadcast information about the study of the compositional activity of engineers in Soviet Russia in the 20s of the XX century. in line with the architectural trend "con-structivism". The study, analysis and fixation in graphic images of masterpieces of volume-spatial composition in the history of engineering, scientific thought is considered by the authors as an isola-tion from an artificially created object – an organism of universal laws and means. The authors believe that the study, analysis and fixation in a schematic graphic material of high-class samples of science, technology, engineering allows you to develop compositional thinking, taste and teaches you to under-stand the course and origins of compositional thought in design. The study of the formal (composi-tional) sphere of the Legacy of the classics of modern and past eras allows you to build the path of the author's work on the project, avoiding mistakes and disappointments.
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Investigation of plasticizing additives based on polycarboxylate esters on the properties of concretes formed by 3D printing

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-42-58
Abstract
The article studies the features of the use of plasticizing additives based on polycarboxylate ether in the technology of additive construction production (3D printing). Layer-by-layer extrusion was carried out on an AMT S-6044 3D printer. The normal density and setting time of the cement paste, the average density, plastic strength and dimensional stability of the concrete mixture, the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete were studied. It is shown that plasticizing additives based on polycarboxylate esters in the considered concentrations are effective modifiers of rheotechnological and physical and mechanical properties of cement concrete mixtures used in 3D printing technology. The greatest increase in compressive and flexural strength with the introduction of the studied polycarboxylate plasticizers is observed at PC CEM I 42.5N: the introduction of 0.5% "MasterGlenium 430" leads to an increase in compressive and flexural strength by 49.3% and 31.6%; with the introduction of "MasterGlenium 115" – by 21.6% and 35%; with the introduction of "MasterGlenium 591" – by 49.8% and 41.7%, respectively. Of interest for further research is the development of complex organo-mineral additives of multifunctional action based on polycarboxylate plasticizers for concretes molded by additive manufacturing (3D printing).
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Use of modern materials in biodirectional architecture

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-59-69
Abstract
We live in a dynamic time and the need for evolution in architecture is inevitable. With the advent of new generations and the development of technological progress, modern styles, ideas, technologies and materials appear.
The purpose of the article is to explore new materials that promote innovation and renewal, which can be used in biodirectional architecture. The main types of biotechnological materials are identified, a forecast for the future formation is given, based on the development and design trends.
The main results of the study are to identify the vector of development of the natural approach in ar-chitecture. The value of the acquired knowledge lies in the fact that biotechnological materials are aimed at improving the quality of architecture and its harmonious coexistence with nature. The appli-cation of existing and new biotechnological materials will improve the urban fabric.
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Study of the plasma-electrolyte process for producing titanium oxide nanoparticles

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-70-79
Abstract
The work is devoted to the investigation of the process of obtaining titanium oxide nanoparticles by burning high voltage DC gas discharge in an argon atmosphere when an aqueous solution is used as one of the electrodes. It was found that using an aqueous glycine solution in an inert gas medium, the plasma-electrolyte process using a streamer discharge is well suited for producing titanium oxide nanoparticles. An important regularity of particle size decrease with the increase of argon pressure in the chamber was revealed. Thus, when the pressure is increased from 1 MPa to 3 MPa, a sharp decrease in the average particle size from 62 nm to 16 nm is observed, while the changes in the aver-age particle size are not cardinal already in the process of pressure increase up to 5 MPa. A narrowing of the dispersion composition scatter with increasing pressure for 1 MPa - ± 40 nm, 3 MPa - ± 20 nm and 5 MPa - ± 8 nm was determined. The presence of titanium oxide particles was confirmed on the basis of plasmon resonance detection at 224, 230 and 235 nm.
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Development of a plasma-chemical method for producing amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-80-90
Abstract
One of the most promising areas of production is additive technologies of building, in particular powder 3D printing. The aim of the work is to create a plasma-chemical method of obtaining amorphous silicon dioxide, satisfying the characteristics for the use of additive technologies of build-ing products, as well as in columns used in high performance liquid chromatography - one of the most common methods of study, as well as control of the environment and production products. One of the main requirements for particles is a porous structure with a surface that has a chemically bonded or physically coated active phase used for separation. Experimental installation for obtaining amorphous silica was developed, the feature of which was the possibility of rapid and continuous supply of pressed briquettes, rather than powdered material as it was previously. Studies have shown that the developed plasma-chemical process implemented in the condition of evaporation of briquettes consist-ing of 70% sand and 30% coke is effective enough to produce silicon oxide nanoparticles smaller than 200 nm. The developed method of obtaining nanoparticles should be further investigated on the ability to obtain nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm, it is so necessary to obtain the specific surface area of 200 m2/g, which will make it possible to produce from this raw material particles of the fixed phase carrier column of high-performance liquid chromatography.
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