Klyuev S.V.

Candidate of Engineering Sciences (Ph.D.), Associate Professor, Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov, Russia

Universal Laws of Composition (Artificial and Natural Form) on the Example of the V.G. Shukhov Tower

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-5-29-41
Abstract
The authors of the article broadcast information about the study of the compositional activity of engineers in Soviet Russia in the 20s of the XX century. in line with the architectural trend "con-structivism". The study, analysis and fixation in graphic images of masterpieces of volume-spatial composition in the history of engineering, scientific thought is considered by the authors as an isola-tion from an artificially created object – an organism of universal laws and means. The authors believe that the study, analysis and fixation in a schematic graphic material of high-class samples of science, technology, engineering allows you to develop compositional thinking, taste and teaches you to under-stand the course and origins of compositional thought in design. The study of the formal (composi-tional) sphere of the Legacy of the classics of modern and past eras allows you to build the path of the author's work on the project, avoiding mistakes and disappointments.
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RESULTS OF ENDURANCE TESTING OF PREFABRICATED CRANE STRUCTURES

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-4-39-49
Abstract
The purpose of the work is to analyze the results of tests of prefabricated crane beams for endurance during cyclic tests on a specially designed stand. The method of carrying out such tests is given. It indicates the inadmissibility of the operation of steel crane structures with cracks and the importance of research aimed at increasing the endurance and durability of crane beams. It proves the need to develop new crane beams (various profiles) to increase the period of accident-free operation of industrial buildings (using bridge lifting mechanisms with heavy duty) up to 25 years. It is proved that the developed prefabricated crane beam has improved (in comparison with the standard) characteristics.
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TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF A DEMOUNTABLE FOUNDATION FOR TOWER STRUCTURES

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-3-17-26
Abstract
The paper proposes a new type of modular demountable reinforced concrete foundation for the construction of tower-type structures. Numerical modeling and design features of the manufacture and installation of the foundation, implemented under patent 2633604 “Demountable foundation for support” for a real tower with a height of 30 meters and a power of a 150 kV wind power plant, are given. The reduction of material consumption is achieved due to the formation of a cavity in each typical module and filling it with soil or any inert material. The result of the proposed solution is to increase the bearing capacity of the foundation as a whole, increase the strength and rigidity of its main joints, as well as simplify installation in comparison with traditional approaches to design. Moreover, the foundation modules, where maximum stresses occur, can be made of fibre concrete.
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THE RELIABILITY COEFFICIENT FOR FIBRE CONCRETE MATERIAL

https://doi.org/10.58224/2618-7183-2022-5-2-51-58
Abstract
One of the main parameters of the method for calculating building structures made of concrete and fibre concrete by limiting states is the reliability coefficient for the material, which characterizes the heterogeneity of the physical and mechanical properties of the material. In national and foreign standards, it takes a constant value of 1.3 (obtained on the basis of direct tests), or 1.5 (obtained on the basis of indirect tests and the use of graduated dependencies). The concrete matrix for the formation of the structure of fibre concrete is most often fine-grained concrete with special additives, which has greater uniformity in comparison with heavy concrete, which cannot but affect the reliability of the composite material in question as a whole: the stock coefficients for fibre concrete should be lower than for normal concrete, which has not been reflected in modern standards for design yet. Starting from interval estimates of the average strength value, a new approach to determining the reliability coefficient for the material, differentiated by the 1st and 2nd groups of limit states, is proposed. The results of calculations according to the proposed formulas for previously conducted tests of steel- and glass-fiber concrete images allowed us to conclude: the introduction of fiber into the concrete matrix of the proposed effective composite composition increases the uniformity of the strength properties of the material, which leads to an increase in the reliability of its use in building structures, a decrease in the value of the reliability coefficient (margin) for the material to 1.164...1.235 for central axial compression and up to 1.172...1.272 – for central axial stretching. The obtained actual coefficients in strength calculations will allow to reveal the supplemented reserves of the bearing capacity of structures made of this material up to 22.4%.
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INCREASING IN IMPACT VISCOSITY OF FIBER-ASH-CONCRETE

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2020-3-6-5-16
Abstract
The trend in building materials science is to replace the different proportions of Portland cement in the binder. Therefore, the paper proposes the principles of controlling the static and dynamic strength of fiber-reinforced concrete, consisting in the complex effect of the hydro-removed ash and slag mix and basalt fiber on the processes of structure formation of the cement composite. A four-stage purification system for the hydro-removed ash and slag mixture has been developed, including disintegration, flotation and two-stage magnetic separation. It was found that the density of the fresh mix from the dose behaves naturally, and the density of solid samples at low doses slightly decreases. High early strength of the developed composites is noted, in particular, for specimens with ASM, one and a half increase in compressive strength is traced in comparison with non-additive specimens. Combinations of "fiber + ASM" with a quadrupling of strength have a significant effect on bending strength. Successful approximations of the compressive strength and bending strength on the ASM dose for different ages (1, 7, 28 days) are traced with the regular behavior of the coefficients in the power dependences. Revealed a multiple increase in the impact strength of the developed compositions. The use of the results will lead to the possibility of designing high-strength concretes, including for special structures.
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DEVELOPMENT OF RADIATION-PROOF CONCRETE COMPOSITIONS

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2020-3-5-24-33
Abstract
The article considers the possibility of using composite binders and magnetite as components of concrete with radiation-proof properties. The use of the developed concrete is possible not only when it is necessary to build nuclear power plants, but also to create bunkers or anti-radiation shelters. A special feature of con-cretes used for the protection and design of nuclear reactor cranes is their properties, which they must have. These properties include: low thermal conductivity, increased density, high temperature resistance, reduced values of the coefficient of thermal expansion, shrinkage and creep. Technogenic raw materials for the production of very heavy concrete are studied, the main physical and mechanical characteristics, the requirements that need to be considered in the selection of raw mix composition for protective concrete are analyzed. The paper presents a comparison of physical and mechanical characteristics, the advantages and disadvantages of introducing a binder of various types: cement, cement with a superlasticizer and a binder of low water consumption. It was found that the use of a low-water-consumption binder increases the physical and mechanical characteristics while reducing the consumption of cement in the raw material mix compared to traditional heavy concrete with cement.
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FIBER CONCRETE FOR 3-D ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGIES

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2019-2-4-14-20
Abstract
Fine-grained fiber concrete used in 3D printing is significantly different from conventional heavy concrete, which is determined by the increased consumption of cement, low water-cement ratio and the absence of large aggregates. The largest grain size of fine aggregate is selected taking into account the thickness of the section, the frequency and type of reinforcement, as well as the method of concrete placement. Despite the fact that the tensile strength of concrete on fine sand is more than 1.5 times higher than the strength of concrete on coarse sand, while there is a decrease in compressive strength. Due to the peculiarities of the technology of concrete manufacturing for layering, the use of coarse sands is impractical, and therefore it was decided to use quartz sand with a particle size module of 1.12 as a filler.
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