2022

Archives Journal Construction Materials and Products Vol. 5

DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTICOMPONENT GYPSUM CEMENT BINDER USING THE METHOD OF MATHEMATICAL PLANNING OF THE EXPERIMENT

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-2-5-12
Abstract
In the article, using the method of mathematical planning of the experiment, the influence of formula and technological factors on the properties of hardened multicomponent gypsum-cement binders with a mineral additive finely ground to a specific surface of 300-700 m2/kg of quartz sandstone crushing screening (QSS) JSC Lebedinsky Mining and Processing Industrial Complex, Gubkin, Belgorod region, Russia was determined.
It has been established that the use of finely ground QSS as part of a gypsum cement binder with a ce-ment/QSS– 1/2 ratio contributes to ensuring its operational characteristics and stability of properties during solidification at the required level, contributing to a decrease in the concentration of CaO in the liquid phase of the hardening system.
The optimization task was to determine the conditions for the preparation of a gypsum-cement mixture with a movement of ≤ 120 mm (according to Suttord) and the beginning of the setting time of ≥ 6 min, with the provision of the maximum compressive strength of the hardened binder. An active 3-factor experiment was planned. The following were studied: the compressive strength of hardened gypsum-cement binder samples in 2 hours of hardening – Rcomp2(Y1); at 28 days of age – Rcomp28(Y2); as well as the mobility of the gypsum–cement mixture – P (Y3) and the timing of the beginning of setting - T (Y4). With the help of mathematical processing of the results of experimental studies, regression equations were obtained and with the help of nomograms constructed on the basis of mathematical expressions, the rational compositions of gypsum cement compositions were graphically and analytically determined.
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ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGLE OF DEFLECTION FROM VERTICALITY OF THE FRAME IN DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-2-13-21
Abstract
The design of high-rise complexes includes the solution of a multifactorial problem, consisting of: survey work (geodesic development; tracing work; marking and survey work; engineering-geological, hydrogeo-logical, hydrological), functional operational, as well as the reliability of the structure, the prospects for its further reconstruction, economic feasibility of construction, selection of structural components of the object, etc. The purpose of this work is theoretical and experimental research in the design and construction of facilities, including alternative methods for measuring the angle of deviation from the vertical frame of a structure (during the frame erection of structures).
To determine the deviation of columns from verticality, an alternative method is proposed for "indirect measurements of the angle" of the deviation of the column, as well as the distance from the theodolite (total station) to the plane of the standard. Geometric schemes for determining the linear angle of deviation of a column from verticality and the installation of a theodolite (tacheometer) for recording deviations of columns perpendicular to the sides of the structure are presented.
The technique of carrying out experimental researches is described and the received graphic dependences are resulted. The performed surveys and calculations make it possible to determine the deviations of the columns from the vertical by means of angular measurements from the ground.
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COMPROMISE INTERACTION OF TRANSPORT AND PEDESTRIAN FLOWS ON THE EXAMPLE OF RENOVATION PROJECT OF THE STATION SQUARE IN YUZHNO-SAKHALINSK

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-2-22-34
Abstract
City squares have historically been a place of attraction for people. Since the development of large cities, squares have become a socio-cultural part of the urban space, embodying a place of recreation, communica-tion, trade and leisure for city residents. In today's urbanized environment, it becomes very important to solve transport problems and individual, recognizable filling.
The article explores such a type of urban space as the square in front of the railway station. Modern requirements and approaches are considered from the point of view of functional division, transport solution, security for all users, information component, recreational potential and figurative solution. On the example of analogues, an analysis of the trends that have developed in recent years in the design of railway station areas has been carried out, and the main techniques that are most suitable for use in the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk have been identified.
The final part of the article is devoted to the analysis and project proposal for the renovation of the station square in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. As a result of the transformations, the square should receive a clear functional division, become the center of architectural and landscape transformations, a point of attraction for citizens, a place of safe transit, recreation and leisure for residents.
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RESEARCH OF THE RESPONSE SURFACE OF THE INTEGRAL POTENTIAL OF CAPITAL REPAIRS AND RECONSTRUCTION OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS IN THE FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-2-35-42
Abstract
It is proposed to use fuzzy production rules when making decisions on inclusion in the title list of public buildings, since in the practice of assessing the technical condition of a building on the basis of an expert opinion based on the results of a survey, the duration of operation determined in accordance with regulatory values, deadlines for work and other indicators affecting the integral potential of including a building in the capital repair and reconstruction plan, such fuzzy concepts as "satisfactory", "unsatisfactory" and others appear. The article proposes the use of the original fuzzy inference methodica to assess the need for major repairs and reconstruction based on the potential of organizational-technological solutions and analyzes the response surfaces, that is, the values of the integral potential depending on expert assessments of input factors.
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TEST OF HEAT PUMP UNIT WITH MOVEBIT ANTI-ICING SYSTEM

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-2-43-50
Abstract
Use of heat pump units is one of the directions for introducing energy-saving technologies into engineering systems. Air heat pumps are more promising than geothermal ones, but their use in cold climates is limited by formation of frost on the evaporator heat exchanger. This paper presents a heat pump unit with a system for breaking ice with using oscillatory circuits. The air heat pump unit with MOVEBIT anti-icing system, including the oscillatory circuit, has been developed. It was tested in the temperature range from -26 up to +10 . The transformer ratio is determined as the ratio of the heat received to the operation expended. The calculation of heat output was carried out using a computer program that includes the flow main parameters. The calculated and experimental values of the coefficients are compared. Studies have shown that a change in the temperature of the air entering the evaporator of the pumping unit with the anti-icing system does not significantly affect the energy efficiency of the equipment under test. The MOVEBIT outdoor air heat pump allows to obtain a conversion factor in the range of 4-6 when operating in areas with outdoor temperatures down to -27 and can compete with geothermal heat pumps. Measurements of the sound impact of the anti-icing system showed the need to reduce it by 30 %.
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THE PRACTICE OF USING TECHNICAL FABRICS IN THE PRODUCTION OF HEAT-RESISTANT SLEEVES

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-1-5-14
Abstract
The article has developed and mastered promising technologies for the production of heat-resistant metallurgical hoses, which include the use of synthetic materials for the power frame and fire-resistant - cover fibrous materials. Experimental studies have been carried out to reduce the material consumption of the production of sleeves, due to changes in manufacturing technology at the stage of cutting the strips of the power frame and assembling the sleeves. A sleeve manufacturing technology is described, which provides for the introduction of a wire spiral into the sleeve design to protect the sleeves from loss of transverse stability and reduce the bending radius. Technical cord materials for the manufacture of a power frame for sleeves of various types in production are considered. The technology of protecting the outer surface has been mastered, providing for the creation of bumpers of various design schemes. In order to increase the temperature resistance of the operation of metallurgical heat-resistant sleeves, a technology has been created for the manufacture of sleeves based on non-flammable and fire-resistant fabric materials covering the sleeves on the outer surface. The operation of the hoses showed the correctness of the developed technologies and the choice of appropriate materials. Research work on the development of new fire-resistant materials for heat-resistant hoses has been carried out. The prospects of using innovative technology for manufacturing heat-resistant metallurgical hoses are noted.
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FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-1-15-37
Abstract
Today, up to 80% of buildings and structures are built on deep foundations, the main elements of which are concrete and reinforced concrete piles (hammered, bored and piles made according to CFA technology). Since the beginning of the mass use of drilling piles (the 60s of the last century), there is still a problem of ensuring the reliability of foundations, due to the fact that the process of installing piles is hidden from observation, and unacceptable defects may form in the pile trunks, which reduce the bearing capacity of piles and can lead the structure to an emergency condition. Pile construction technologies are constantly being improved, however, it is still not possible to avoid the appearance of defects in pile trunks because there are quite a lot of reasons for the formation of defects that it is not always possible to foresee and take into account. That is why, during the construction of deep foundations, output monitoring of the technical condition of drill pile shafts should be provided, which cannot be performed without the use of non-destructive diagnostic methods. The use of these methods and means, which implements them, should be mandatory to ensure the reliability and safety of the operation of buildings and structures and today is already provided for by numerous standards and regulatory documents. Currently, acoustic methods are mainly used for diagnostics, namely: single- and multi-channel acoustic logging; pulse Echo method with shock excitation of elastic waves (hereinafter referred to as the method of vibration-shock diagnostics). It should be noted that in the case of using high deformation to excite elastic waves, at which the impact energy on the end of the pile reaches the limit of proportionality, an assessment of the bearing capacity of experimental piles is given, and the low technique is used exclusively for diagnosing pile trunks. For a long time, these methods could not be widely implemented in the field. Their capabilities have increased significantly after the development of digital signal processing methods.
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MODULAR STRUCTURES AS A METHOD OF ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT ARRANGEMENT

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-1-38-53
Abstract
Key versions of the concept «module» in the sphere of architectural design are considered. Modular structures are defined as a means of creating a flexible and dynamic architectural environment with variable functional parameters, the main potential of which is expressed in the speed of erection, autonomy, economical efficiency, transformative possibilities. The main features and advantages of the modular structures as well as the most effective fields of their application are considered. Examples are given of modular objects from current construction practices that illustrate the possibilities and specific means of their formation. Special emphasis has been placed on the ecological feasibility of modular facilities, as well as on the possibility of their interaction with the established architectural context. The use of the modular method in extreme conditions, including the formation of a habitable environment in outer space, is considered.
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FEATURES OF DEVELOPING UNIQUE ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS USING DIGITAL METHODS BASED ON VISUAL PROGRAMMING

https://doi.org/10.34031/2618-7183-2022-5-1-54-59
Abstract
The article deals with the creation of a parametric facade by writing an algorithm based on attractor modeling methods. The article analyzes various options for extracting facade solutions based on world and domestic design experience. In addition, the article describes in detail the general algorithm for creating a parametric facade using the Rhinoceros program and the Grasshopper component environment. Architecture combined with modern digital technologies can provide an opportunity for the emergence of a new type of architectural thinking both in the context of shaping and in the context of design. Today, the architectural world is constantly replenished with new innovative tools and the design methods generated by them, but until now there was no clear classification and structuring of emerging opportunities. At the early stages of the emergence of digital methods, it is important to create a hierarchy of all tools and understand which one is suitable for certain tasks, create a base of experiments and results based on the latest methods. This approach finds its relevance in modern methods of architectural design, as it provides an alternative choice of options and a high speed of automated modeling.
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