The paper is devoted to a full-scale study of corundum modifying dispersed additives (reactive, tabular, dispersing alumina) and artificial ceramic binder, their impact on high-alumina cement microstructure and setting time. Artificial ceramic binders are characterized by similar chemical, phase and grain composition with modifying corundum additives and characterized by the presence of particles less than 100 nm (up to 0.5%). The studied materials are finely dispersed polyfractional systems from 0.1 to 13 μm with a prevailing grading fraction of 2-10 μm. In this case, dispersing and reactive alumina are more coarse. Using the microscopy method it was established that the corundum additives increase packing density of high-alumina cement samples, especially with artificial ceramic binder addition. Studies of dispersed additives effect on the setting time of cement was conducted. It is established that the adding of artificial ceramic binder or dispersing alumina at 0.5% is speeding up the initial setting, but a further increasing of the additive content does not affect this indicator. The maximum reduction of setting time is caused by the introduction of 5% tabular alumina.